How to incorporate a direct quote within the text
Ask yourself these questions if you are considering using the words of another instead of summarizing the information in your own words.
- Are the author's words so impressive or so unique that I couldn't express those ideas as well?
- Is the author's language so succinct that it would take me twice as many words to explain the same thought?
- Is the terminology so precise that I could not explain the meaning?
If you answer yes to any of these questions, then include the quotation into your text.
IQI--Introduce, Quote, Interpret
Now that you've decided to include the words of another in your paper, make sure that you incorporate them in such a way that they enhance your ideas and are understood by the reader.
1. Introduce the quoted material by telling the reader some information about the writer: name (the first time an author is referred to use first and last names. After that, use only last the name).
2. Include the quotation. Be sure to include the words within double quotation marks. Always include the page number where the quotation is located.
Chapter 5 in Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers explains the use of quotations in great detail but there are some general guidelines. If you're using footnotes or endnotes, the superscript number (I) goes outside the period and quotation marks (i.e. ." I). If you utilize the parenthetical style of documentation, the page number is included after the quotation mark, inside the parenthesis, and within the sentence (i.e. "(3).)
Pages 95-98 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association contain the AP guidelines for including quotations. In general, include the page number inside the parenthesis within the sentence (i.e. (p. 102) ). If you have not given the author's name within the text, include the author's last name, year, and page number inside the parenthesis (i.e. Mapes, 1902, p. 102).
3. Always include a "coming-away" observation after the quoted material to interpret those ideas. This serves three essential functions: to explain the meaning of the quoted words; to restore your authority; and to reestablish your voice. Never assume the reader will understand the quotation or how those words relate to your points. Your words and your ideas are what are important-not some else's thoughts.
Example from a paper:
In Numbers 27:7 the Lord says, " What Zelophehad's daughters are saying is right. You must certainly give them property as an inheritance." God's brief ruling in favor of the daughters should remind us today that in the "Court of Justice" the disenfranchised deserve a hearing.