Turabian/Chicago Documentation Style
Dissertation secretary Kate Turabian worked for more than thirty years at the University of Chicago editing over
11,000 theses. In 1937, her first documentation guidelines were published in a 68-page booklet. Now in its sixth edition, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers of Research Theses, and Dissertations (1) is the preferred documentation system for both scientific and non-scientific fields. This seventh edition is also referred to as;Chicago Style for Student and Researchers.
With the Turabian method of documentation, the writer has a choice of styles: in-text references directing
the reader to a list of bibliographic works at the end of the paper or a note system directing the reader to the bottom of the page or to the end of the text for the bibliographic information. With the preferred note system, the complete bibliographic information is given the first time a source is cited. If the source is cited again the note gives less information.
Programs at Louisville Seminary, other than the MFT and DMin in Pastoral Counseling, use the Chicago documentation style.
Always ask your professor if you are not sure which paradigm to use.
1. Kate Turabian, ents A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, rev. Wayne Booth, Gregory Colomb and Joseph Williams 7th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).
General Guidelines for Using Turabian/Chicago
A. Italicize titles of books and journals.
B. Titles of articles/chapters in books are put in quotation marks.
C. Quotations longer than two sentences or eight lines of text are placed single-spaced and block indented four
spaces from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks, but do add the author and the page number at the end of
the block quote.
D. Page numbers of the paper should be at the right margin at the top of the page or centered at the bottom of the page.
E. Abbreviate books of the Bible in both the text and the footnotes. Also identify which version of the Bible is cited (NRSV, KJ). If all Bible quotes are from the same translation of the Bible then you only have to refer to the translation after the first quote. Do not include the Bible in the bibliography.
F. The latest edition of Turabian/Chicago guidelines on how to include internet resources is in Part II.
G. Turabian/Chicago gives the writer the choice between footnotes, endnotes, and parenthetical citations. Ask your professors which one they prefer.
H. If you cannot find an example of how to reference your source the seventh edition refers you back to the 15 edition of the Chicago Manual of Sryle.
Whatever you do be consistent.
Writing a paper using the Turabian/Chicago Footnotes or Endnotes
A. General rules
1. Consecutively number footnotes or endnotes in regular script (not superscript) throughout the text. The computer
will automatically put the number in superscript in the text and will place the footnote number at the bottom of
the page (look under References, footnote in Word 2007).
2. Place footnotes at the bottom of the page where the quoted material/summary occurs or in the case of endnotes at the end of the text.
3. Indent the first line of the footnote.
B. General guidelines for bibliographies
1.Title the Bibliography, References, Works Cited, or Works Consulted. Place this on a separate page at the end of the paper.
2.Type in upper and lower case letters using the same size font as the rest of the paper
3.The list of sources should be
1) Alphabetical order
2) Hanging indent—the first line is flush with the left margin and the lines following are indented
Mapes, Kathryn, . . . Louisville: Chalice Press, 2050.
3) Single space entries and double spaced between entries.
4.Use Ibid. if the preceding work is the same. Use Ibid., page number if the page number
is different (i.e. Ibid., 14). Ibid. means “in the same place.”
The following examples of footnotes and the Reference page are from the seventh edition of A Manual for Writers part II.
These are only a few of an exhaustive list.
Books with one author
Philip Ball, Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color (New York: Farrar,Straus and Giroux, 2001), 140.
Ball, Philip. Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001.
Books with author and editor
Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf (Chicago: University of Chicago
Bonnefoy,Yves. New and Selected Poems, Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Chapters in a book
John Denos, “Real Lives and Other Fictions.” in Novel History: Historians and Novelists Comfort America’s Past,
ed. Mark Carnes (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001), 132-45.
Denos,John. “Real Lives and Other Fictions.” In Novel History: Historians and Novelists Comfort America’s Past, Edited
by Mark Carnes, 132-45. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
Chapter in a book that is part of a larger series
Barbara, Mundy , “Mesoamerican Cartography,” in Cartography in the Traditional African Societies, ed. David Woodward,
vol 2 of The History of Cartography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 233.
Mundy, Barbara. “Mesoamerican Cartography,” in Cartography in the Traditional African Societies, ed. David Woodward, vol 2
of The History of Cartography .Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Nancy Green, “The Politics of Exit: Reversing the Immigration Paradigm,” Journal of Modern History 77 (June 2005):275.
Green, Nancy. “The Politics of Exit: Reversing the Immigration Paradigm.” Journal of Modern History 77 (June 2005):263-89.
Pliney the Elder, The Natural History, ed. John Bostock and H.T. Riley, in Perseus Digital Library, http://perserseus.tufs
(accessed April 1, 1902).
Pliney the Elder, The Natural History. Edited by John Bostock and H.T. Riley. In Perseus Digital Library,
http://perserseus.tufs (accessed April 1, 1902).
Commentary in a series--Anchor Bible series
Genesis, Anchor Bible Series (place: pub, date), page if necessary.
Genesis. Anchor Bible Series. Place: pub, date.
Commentary that appears in one multi volume of larger series-- New Interpreter’s Bible
Genesis. New Interpreter’s Bible. Vol #. (Place: Pub, date), page if necessary.
Genesis. New Interpreter’s Bible. Vol #. Place: Pub, date.
If there are editors or authors of the “chapter” then place that before the name of “chapter.” (e.g.
Mapes, Kathryn, ed. . . . Genesis . . .
BibleWorks-from Bibleworks website, www.bibleworks.com, accessed Aug. 29,1011
General Citation for an Electronic Concordance Program
1. Michael S. Bushell and Michael D. Tan, BibleWorks 6.0.009i (BibleWorks, 2003).
Bushell, Michael S. and Michael D. Tan. BibleWorks 6.0.009i BibleWorks, 2003.
Citation for a Text Module from an Electronic Concordance Program
Martin G. Abegg Jr., The Qumran Sectarian Manuscripts (with Morphological Tags) 1999, 2000, 2001,”
BibleWorks 6.0.009i (BibleWorks, 2003).
Abegg, Martin G. Jr. The Qumran Sectarian Manuscripts (with Morphological Tags). 1999, 2000, 2001. BibleWorks
6.0.009i BibleWorks, 2003.
Citation for a Lexicon Module from an Electronic Concordance Program
BDAG, BibleWorks 6.0.009i (BibleWorks, 2003).
Bauer, W., F. W. Danker, W. F. Arndt, and F. W. Gingrich. Greek-English Leixcon of the New
Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3d ed. Chicago, 1999. BibleWorks 6.0.009i BibleWorks, 2003.
Citing Readings Posted on CAMS
Readings posted on CAMS for HCE II are (mostly) of two types:
1.Some are documents (mostly PDF files) that have been created by scanning a printed text
(usually this is a selection from a published book).
2.Some are documents that have been created by your professor—an edited version of a text
(most of these are from works that are in the public domain). The source from which the text is taken is
indicated, usually in a footnote at the bottom of the first page of the reading. Most of these documents
are Microsoft Word files. They often include a brief introduction.
When you cite these readings, your method of citation will vary.
For the first type of reading, you should be able to get all the necessary information from the document itself
(author, title, place of publication, publisher, date, page numbers). If that information is not in the text, then
a mistake has been made in the scanning process and a helpful word to alert your instructor and/or library personnel
would be appreciated. Standard methods of citation (as given in The Chicago Manual of Style, 15 ed. or Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 7 ed.)
can and should be used.
For the second type of reading it is appropriate to use a slightly different form of citation, since you are not accessing
a published source directly, but using a version of the text that has been selected for this particular course. In order
to convey the source you are utilizing with greater transparency, then, the following citation form should be used:
First and Last name of author, "Title of the Work," in History of Christian Experience II Course Readings, ed.
Professor of the Course (Louisville, KY: Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Fall 2011), page number(s).
Francis Xavier, "To the Society in Europe," in History of Christian Experience II Course Readings, ed. Christopher Elwood
(Louisville, KY: Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Fall 2011), 1-3.
Last name, First name of author. "Title of the Work." History of Christian Experience II Course Readings. Ed.
Professor of the Course. Louisville, KY: Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Fall 2011, page number(s).
Xavier, Francis. "To the Society in Europe." History of Christian Experience II Course Readings. Ed. Christopher Elwood.
Louisville, KY: Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Fall 2011, 1-3.
Writing a Paper Using the Turabian/Chicago Within the in-text Style of Citation
Citations within the paper.
• If the author is named in the sentence then just put the date of publication in parentheses after the author’s
Mapes (1901) reports that all seminary students are overworked.
• If you do not name the author within the text then put the last name of the author and the date of publication within parenthesis.
Dogs are always welcome here on Louisville Seminary’s campus (Reistroffer 1903).
• If you have a direct quote and name the author within the text, you must add the date and page number in the parenthetical information.
Mapes said, “I wish it would snow so we could go home” (2001, 4).
• If you have a direct quote and do not include the author’s name in the text you should have the author’s last name, date of publication, and page within parenthesis.
“Louisville Seminary’s campus is located in a beautiful setting” (Mapes 2001, 4).
• Notice that there is not a comma between the author’s last name and the date of publication. There is a comma between the date of publication and the page number. Additionally there is no p before the page number.
References/Works Cited page
When in-text citations are used the reference is exactly like the one used for footnotes except the date of publication goes directly after the author’s name.
Example Ray, Stephen. (2002). Do No Harm: Social Sin and Christian Responsibility. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
For more in-depth information consult Chapter #18 of A Manual for Writers of Term Papers and Theses, and Dissertations,
edition 7, 2007.
Internet Resources for Turabian/Chicago
http://www.bartleby.com/141/ --William Strunk’s The Elements of Style—This is an online version of Strunk’s classic
of the principal requirements of plain English style and the rules of usage.
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html --The Chicago Manual of Style FAQ (frequently asked questions). You
can post questions or just read over the ones there.
-- The official short guide to citations in Turabian style. Comprehensive list of examples.
–website for Bibleworks citations